Mechanisms of potentiation of chemotherapeutic efficacy by TTFields. A Tubulin chains are elongated by Paclitaxel, leading to an increase in the average dipole moment of free tubulin chains (d – length of an individual tubulin dimmer; f – force between the microtubule chain and the dimmer; F-force acting on the tubulin dimmers by TTFields; Arrow length is proportional to the intensity of these forces). The forces TTFields exert on these larger dipoles, F, are enhanced leading to an increase in the disruption of the mitotic spindle by TTFields. B TTFields act as an M-phase inhibitor, while alkylating agents act at the G and S phases of the cell cycle. This separation between cell cycle phases affected explains the additivity seen experimentally.